||Native warn season grasses (NWSG) were first planted on a large scale in the midwestern states during the soil bank era of the 1950s and 1960s. Ringneck pheasant, bobwhite quail, greater and lesser prairie chicken, sharptailed grouse and other early successional wildlife populations increased dramatically in response to the cropland retirement program. Since the 1960s, wildlife managers in Kansas, Nebraska, and Oklahoma have planted thousands of acres of cropland to NWSG. Wildlife managers noted that wildlife populations boomed for 5 to 8 years before declining as the idle plantings matured but remained higher than during the preplanting period of intensive farming. Most managers feel that management to rejuvenate the grasslands is important to maintaining wildlife populations but that at best the populations would probably not be as great as during the first few years of development when annual forbs and grasses dominated. Wildlife populations remained highest and most stable where NWSG plantings were associated with dense woody cover and some grain crops for high energy food.