||Establishment of warm-season grass seedlings is a slow and risky process. Since warm-season grass seed is generally expensive, land may have to be taken out of production for several seasons, and seeding failures are common, producers are often unwilling or unable to face the economic risk associated with establishing warm season grasses. Therefore, producers often use cool-season grasses when they really need summer pasture because they achieve a usable stand of cool-season grasses much more quickly and reliably. Understanding morphological development during germination and seedling development process is essential to select appropriate seeding and seeding management practices. The weak seedling vigor often attributed warm-season grasses relates to physiological and morphological aspects of seedling development. With appropriate management practices warm-season grass seedling vigor, per se, is not the factor limiting establishment. A clear understanding of grass seedling morphology and the implications for establishment will enable managers to design and use management practices that minimize risk and allow seedlings to establish as perennial plants.