||Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) reduces northern Great Plains rangeland carrying capacity. Treatment strategies were evaluated that suppressed leafy spurge and facilitated establishment of mixtures of native grasses and legumes on range sites near Mason City and Tilden, Nebr. Glyphosate at 1,600 g a.i, (active ingredient) ha(-1) was applied with or without imazapic at 140 or 210 g a.i. ha(-1) in October 1995. In April 1996, standing crop was burned or mowed. Mixtures of native grasses [big: bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash), and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtiplendula (Michx.) Torr.)] were then planted with or without native legumes [leadplant (Amorpha canescens (Nutt.) Pursh), Illinois bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx,) MacM.), and purple prairieclover (Petalostemum purpureum (Vent,) Rybd.)] at 330 pls m(-2) into a non-tilled seedbed. Imazapic was applied at 70 g a.i. ha(-1) in June 1996 to half the plots that had been treated with imazapic in October 1995, Frequency, dry matter yield, and leaf spurge density were measured 14 to 16 months after planting. Leafy spurge density and yield were least, and frequencies and yields of the planted grasses usually were greatest where imazapic had been applied with glyphosate in October 1995, Purple prairie clover was the only planted legume to persist 14 months after planting, and yields were greatest where imazapic was applied with glyphosate. Imazapic applied in June 1996 usually did not improve planted species yields or leafy spurge control. Total vegetation yields were greater where imazapic was applied with glyphosate at both sites and where native species were seeded at Mason City. Vegetation suppression with fall-applied herbicides and removal of standing crop enabled successful establishment of desirable species, increased forage yields, and suppressed leafy spurge.